TON Miner GPU gpu miner documentation and manuals

v20211126-1, Dr. Elias, Dr. Andreas

Miner operation algorithm

Let’s start with the basics: miner and giver interaction.

Sample hash computation:

/usr/bin/ton/crypto/pow-miner -vv -w 1 -t 43200 \
Ef80UXx731GHxVr0-LYf3DIViMerdo3uJLAG3ykQZFjXz2kW \
189652831762983393964625580816547478595 \
9916687918475570719027284474883172700405006565162163839650282600000 \
300647710720 kf-kkdY_B7p-77TLn2hUhM6QidWrrsl8FYWCIvBMpZKprBtN /tmp/mined.boc
[ expected required hashes for success: 11676488177 ]
0: GPU #0: SM 6.1 NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080
0: GPU throughput: 33554432
0: hash[0:12958854353]: 0000 = 0000, 18191111 < 5e2a220a
0: data0[0:12958854353]: f24d69 6e65fc61 38bcea34 517c7bdf 5187c55a f4f8b61f dc321588 c7ab768d ee24b006 df291064 58d7cfba c342d743 629ae2ea 61a8122d 9711c73 f8605dac
0: data1[0:12958854353]: 481d08b8 cf788b19 1251818e adce88ad 28e847f8 57522cb cc7c43ba c342d743 629ae2ea 61a8122d 9711c73 f8605dac 481d08b8 cf788b19 12518180 0000
0: data2[0:12958854353]: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 03d8
0: hash[0:12958854353]: 0000 18191111 9582f5a4 b5807a2c 3982dd02 3d568d3f 18d414a9 53c0a728
0: complexity[0:12958854353]: 0000 5e2a220a d09901dd 7a08fe66 b11bfe6c 4928567d 9ea4390b 4d9ff640
0: rdata[0:12958854353]: bac342d7 43629ae2 ea61a812 2d09711c73f8605d ac481d08 b8cf7888 14a9e4b0
0: FOUND! nonce=12958854353 vcpu=0 expired=1631108330
Saving 176 bytes of serialized external message into file /tmp/mined.boc
[ hashes computed: 12952010752 ]
[ speed: 7.20559e+08 hps ]

Let’s analyze step-by-step how this result was obtained.

First, let’s convert all parameters to the hex format:

op: Mine = 4d696e65
my address: Ef80UXx731GHxVr0-LYf3DIViMerdo3uJLAG2ikQZFjXzxCx 
pow seed: 189652831762983393964625580816547478595 
          = 8EADCE88AD28E847F8057522CBCC7C43
pow complexity: 9916687918475570719027284474883172700405006565162163839650282600000 
                = 5E2A220AD09901DD7A08FE66B11BFE6C4928567D9EA4390B4D9FF640
miner address: kf-kkdY_B7p-77TLn2hUhM6QidWrrsl8FYWCIvBMpZKprBtN
expired at: 1631108330 = 6138bcea
rdata1: 32 random bytes = bac342d743629ae2ea61a8122d09711c73f8605dac481d08b8cf788814a9e4b0
rdata2: equal to rdata1

the expired at value is verified by the giver (see; the value must n’t diverge from the validator time by more than 1024 seconds (~17 minutes) at the point when a suggested solution is being verified.

First, a 123-byte array is formed; let’s call it the “initial value” or the “starting point”:

2 bytes              [0:1]    = 00f2
4 bytes, op          [2:5]    = 4d696e65
1 byte, flags        [6:6]    = fc
4 bytes, expired at  [7:10]   = 6138bcea
32 bytes, my address [11:42]  = 34517c7bdf5187c55af4f8b61fdc321588c7ab768dee24b006df29106458d7cf
32 bytes, rdata1     [43:74]  = bac342d743629ae2ea61a8122d09711c73f8605dac481d08b8cf788814a9e4b0
16 bytes, pow seed   [75:90]  = 8EADCE88AD28E847F8057522CBCC7C43
32 bytes, rdata1     [91:122] = bac342d743629ae2ea61a8122d09711c73f8605dac481d08b8cf788814a9e4b0

or, concatenated:

00f24d696e65fc6138bcea34517c7bdf5187c55af4f8b61fdc321588c7ab768dee24b006df29 106458d7cfbac342d743629ae2ea61a8122d09711c73f8605dac481d08b8cf788814a9e4b08E ADCE88AD28E847F8057522CBCC7C43bac342d743629ae2ea61a8122d09711c73f8605dac481d 08b8cf788814a9e4b0

Then the sha256 hash of the resulting array is computed: hash = 3c11a1a246dc81ef411efb800644f183ebb169fd5035aa0379fd7f5fdd615685 The obtained hash is comparable to the pow complexity, and if hash < pow complexity, this array is the solution. Otherwise, rdata1 and rdata2 are incremented by 1 and hashing is repeated until the solution is found or the predefined number of iterations is carried out.

In our case the valid hash was found at iteration 12958854353; here it is: hash = 00000000 18191111 9582f5a4 b5807a2c 3982dd02 3d568d3f 18d414a9 53c0a728 < complexity = 00000000 5e2a220a d09901dd 7a08fe66 b11bfe6c 4928567d 9ea4390b 4d9ff640, and the following string is taken as the solution (first two bytes are omitted): 4D696E65FC6138BCEA34517C7BDF5187C55AF4F8B61FDC321588C7AB768DEE24B006DF291064 58D7CFBAC342D743629AE2EA61A8122D09711C73F8605DAC481D08B8CF788B191251818EADCE 88AD28E847F8057522CBCC7C43BAC342D743629AE2EA61A8122D09711C73F8605DAC481D08B8 CF788B19125181


4 bytes, op          4D696E65
1 byte, flags        FC
4 bytes, expired at  6138BCEA
32 bytes, my address 34517C7BDF5187C55AF4F8B61FDC321588C7AB768DEE24B006DF29106458D7CF
32 bytes, rdata1     BAC342D743629AE2EA61A8122D09711C73F8605DAC481D08B8CF788B19125181
16 bytes, pow seed   8EADCE88AD28E847F8057522CBCC7C43
32 bytes, rdata1     BAC342D743629AE2EA61A8122D09711C73F8605DAC481D08B8CF788B19125181

sha256 hashing is performed at a GPU according the algorithm specified here

There are some particularities to point out.

Thus, for an sha256 computation, the initial value of 123 bytes has to be extended by 1 bit and zeros, the length of the hashed value is recorded in the end. The result is a data array of 192 bytes (64*3). These are three 64-byte blocks, therefore hashing is performed thrice.

For parallel hash computation, a miner forms an initial value with empty expired at, rdata1,rdata2, then generate an N number of random starting rdata1. In the latest GPU-miner version N = 16.

Then the array of initial rdata1, complexity values, 192 bytes of the extended data array, the current i (nonce) position and the number of hashes for computation are recorded to constant memory gpu.

The constant memory size in GPU allows us to simultaneously iterate up to 1024-1360 initial values, but in practice GPU cores cannot simultaneously processes a number this big.

Each GPU thread independently computes a hash: gets a thread index, current nonce value (iteration, nonce = 0 .. max_iterations), takes rdata1 from the memory (by shift, by a corresponding thread), adds nonce, puts expired at, rdata1_nonced and rdata2_nonced values to data , computes hash and compares it to complexity. If it is meet the condition hash < complexity, it is recorded as the solution. After a group of values is processed, a miner checks whether it has the valid solution and forms a .boc file with it, if yes, or computes the next group of hashes, if no. The group size is determined by throughput variable (boost_factor * 2^19).